•In our first lecture we said that the university is an example of a discourse community and the means of communication among academics in the various disciplines is through academic writings and presentations. •What do we mean by communication in this context? •Communication refers to the transfer of information from a sender to a receiver. In this case, a researcher sharing his research findings with other researchers in a particular discipline. •Communication in the academia also takes the form of lecturers transferring information to students in the form of lectures, presentations and giving students exercises and assignments and receiving feedback. •Communication is therefore a process and it involves the exchange of meaning.

•The elements of communication are •The sender/ writer/encoder/ speaker •Information/message •Channel/ medium •Receiver/decoder/ destination •Feedback/response

The four language skills are: •Listening •Speaking •Reading •Writing

Receptive – listening and reading

Productive – speaking and writing

Primary – listening and speaking

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Secondary – reading and writing

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