Family: Coronaviridae

√Largest positive strand RNA viruses

√Characteristic surface- virions appear as a crown under EM

√Latin word ‘ corona’ means ‘crown’ or ‘halo‘

√Single molecule of linear, +ve ssRNA

√ Helical nucleocapsid; enveloped


Current understanding is based on other corona viruses

√Person to Person (main mode of transmission)

√Close contact with one another (within 6ft)

√Through respiratory droplets from an infected person coughs or sneezes

√Contact with infected surfaces or objects

• Possible; but not major route

√Patient is most contagious when they are the sickest (most symptomatic) Some reports suggest transmission occurs before symptoms appear (not main route)


• CoV2 thought to be;

√ Highly contagious

√Community spread


Illnesses ranges from mild symptoms to severe illness and death

Thought to appear 2-14 days after exposure Symptoms:

√Fever, Cough, Shortness of breath

√Gastrointestinal symptoms like vomiting and diarrhea (frequency unknown)

√Pneumonia most common serious manifestation

√Complications Acute respiratory distress syndrome, septic shock


No specific antiviral treatment recommended for COVID19

√ Patients receive supportive care to relieve symptoms

√Severe cases provided care to support vital organ functions


√Currently no vaccine available

√Best way of prevention is to avoid exposure

√Non-pharmaceutical measures

√Aim is to reduce the impact of an outbreak by reducing the number of contacts, hence reducing transmission.

Through four main countermeasures:

√ Personal Protective

√Equipment Environmental

√Countermeasures Social

√Distancing Countermeasures

√Travel Related Counter measures


• US CDC always recommends everyday preventive actions to help prevent the spread of respiratory diseases, including:

√ Avoid close contact with sick individuals

√Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth

√Stay home if sick

√Cover cough or sneeze with a tissue, appropriate disposal of tissue

√Clean and disinfect frequently touched objects and surfaces

• US CDC recommendations-

√Does not recommend routine use of a face mask for general public

√ Face masks recommended for patients with symptoms and individuals with increase risk like healthcare professionals, close contact

√Frequently washing hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds

√Alternative to soap and water is alcohol based hand sanitizer with at least 60% alcohol

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